Treatment and Fertility Preservation Options

Treatment Options

Your personalised fertility journey starts with an investigation of both partners health.

Your personalised fertility journey starts with an investigation of both partners’ health. We take a holistic (whole of body) approach, which includes assessing the influence of physical and lifestyle factors on your fertility such as age and weight. Working closely as a team, your fertility specialist will create a customised treatment plan outlining the ideal laboratory and clinical approaches for you. Our team will be with you every step of the way to provide support and advice so we can achieve our shared goal: for you to take home a healthy baby. It’s important to know you are not alone in seeking fertility treatment. It is probably much more common than you think. Assisted reproductive technology (ART) refers to the scientific methods that are used to unite sperm and eggs. The most common ART procedures are:

There are also some lower intervention ART procedures such as:

Many couples require minimal intervention to achieve a pregnancy, while others need to undergo procedures such as IVF or ICSI. In recent years, more than 70,000 cycles of treatment with ART have been performed in Australia each year, resulting in one in every 24 babies born in Australia a result of some form of ART – that’s approximately one child in every classroom. After more than 30 years of helping couples and individuals realise their dream of having a baby, we are here to provide advice that is suitable to your needs. If you are ready to embark on treatment, the next steps in your fertility journey are explained here.


The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RANZCOG) recognises that high Body Mass Index (BMI) is now one of the most common and important risk factors for infertility and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Such risks can present even before you start trying to conceive.

While most women who are overweight have an uncomplicated healthy pregnancy, there are some extra precautions which should be taken. Your fertility specialist will aim to fully inform you about the risks of high BMI in pregnancy and how to minimise or control these risks. At Westmead Fertility Centre we don’t have a BMI cut off for starting fertility treatment. However, to optimise your chances of having a healthy pregnancy and child – either naturally or from fertility treatment – your fertility specialist may recommend you take some steps (such as diet, exercise or in some cases where appropriate bariatric surgery) to lose weight before embarking on treatment. A healthy BMI is generally considered to be between 18.5 – 25 kg/m2 (but may vary for your individual situation and your fertility specialist will discuss this with you).

For more information about lifestyle choices you can make to optimise your fertility, please see:


With advances in science and access to the latest technology, it is easy to think that age has no impact on fertility.  The reality is that getting pregnant – either naturally or with fertility treatment – becomes more difficult as women get older.  This is because as women age, their egg quality decreases. Also, the likelihood of miscarriage increases.

From our experience providing fertility treatment at Westmead Fertility Centre, we know that by the age of 43 the chance of having a baby using the women’s own eggs is at most 5% and at 44 years of age or older, the chance is less than 1%. When we know the chance of success is so low, we do not consider it appropriate to offer treatment to a women using her own eggs if she has turned 43 years old. If you are 43 years of age, or older, you may wish to consider building your family using eggs from a donor.  See more information on oocyte (egg) or embryo donation below.

For more information on the impact of age on fertility, please see

You can also estimate your chance of having a baby using the online success estimator that can be found at:

In vitro fertilisation (IVF)

This technique involves placing an oocyte (or egg) and sperm together in a laboratory. Once fertilisation takes place, the embryo is transferred to the uterus to hopefully implant and become a pregnancy. IVF is used to treat a range of fertility issues including:

  • low sperm count
  • fallopian tube damage, for example as a result of endometriosis
  • female’s age
  • ovulation problems, for example, caused by polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

Your Westmead Fertility Centre fertility specialist along with our embryologists will determine if IVF is the right course of treatment for you, based on your specific situation. In standard IVF treatment, a couple’s own sperm and oocytes are used. In certain circumstances when this is not possible, donated eggs or sperm will be used.

Intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)

This is a laboratory technique used when successful fertilisation of the oocyte (or egg) cannot be achieved with standard IVF. While IVF allows the sperm to penetrate the egg of its own accord, in ICSI, a single sperm is directly inserted into the oocyte. ICSI may be used if:

  • the number of sperm available is too few to expect fertilisation with IVF
  • fertilisation has not occurred in previous IVF cycles despite a high number of sperm being present, or
  • the only sperm available are those that have been collected directly from the testis.

It’s not always possible to say in advance whether IVF or ICSI will be necessary to achieve fertilisation of your oocytes. After taking into account the outcome of the sperm assessment, preparation and your relevant history, our embryologists, along with your fertility specialist, will decide whether to proceed with IVF or ICSI. Generally, if we believe that the sperm has the ability to fertilise the egg without assistance, we will proceed with IVF. If the sperm needs help, our embryologist will proceed with ICSI. Our recommendation will be discussed with you following oocyte pick-up (OPU) procedure. Unfortunately, not all oocytes are suitable for sperm injection. Some may be immature and may not survive the injection process.

Embryo cryopreservation

After embryo transfer in either an IVF or ICSI cycle, any remaining good quality embryos can be frozen and stored for later use through a process known as cryopreservation. If pregnancy does not occur in the IVF or ICSI cycle, your frozen embryos may be thawed and transferred in a later cycle – this is called a frozen embryo transfer (FET) cycle. Frozen embryos may be thawed and transferred in an FET cycle, even several years later. Embryo cryopreservation is an essential part of a comprehensive fertility service. This allows embryos to be placed into the uterus at the optimal time (at a later date) and allows full use of all good quality embryos. Around half of our patients at Westmead Fertility Centre generally have embryos available for freezing. We successfully freeze embryos on Day 1, Day 2, Day 3 and Day 5 of their development. At Westmead Fertility Centre, we have invested in the latest vapour phase tank technology to provide the optimal storage environment and we have a very successful freezing and thawing process. The success rate from frozen embryo transfers is on par with fresh embryo transfers. This is why freezing your embryos is an obvious option. It means you will undertake fewer fresh cycles if you need future treatment and you’ll be using embryos created while you are younger – which can make a difference to your success.

Embryos being frozen and stored for future use in our vapour phase tanks
Embryos being frozen and stored for future use in our vapour phase tanks

The importance of transferring one embryo at a time

Intrauterine insemination (IUI)

This process, also known as assisted insemination (AI), involves placing specially prepared semen directly into the woman’s uterus. Sperm can be provided by the woman’s partner or from a sperm donor. IUI may be used if:

  • the couple have unexplained infertility and wish to try a lower intervention form of assisted reproduction technology
  • the couple need to use donor sperm
  • the male partner is unable to ejaculate into the vagina near the cervix
  • sperm may not be able to move from the vagina, through the cervix, into the uterus or
  • there may be emotional or psychological problems which prevent normal sexual intercourse despite appropriate counselling.

Frozen embryo transfer (FET)

Embryos can be frozen and stored for later use through a process known as cryopreservation. At Westmead Fertility Centre, we will customise your cryopreservation process and offer either slow freezing or vitrification, depending on your circumstances and the stage of development of the embryos. If pregnancy does not occur in the original fresh IVF or ICSI cycle, the frozen embryos may be thawed and transferred in a later cycle – this is called a frozen embryo transfer. Frozen embryos may be thawed and transferred at the appropriate time in a subsequent FET cycle, even many years later. If your menstrual cycles are normally regular, medication to stimulate the ovaries is not required in a cycle in which thawed embryos are transferred. It is only necessary to ‘track’ that cycle for a few days prior to the expected day of ovulation, to find the optimal time to transfer the embryos.

Freeze-all cycles

Sometimes when patients are undergoing an IVF or ICSI cycle, it is discovered that the uterus lining (endometrium) may not be optimal for a fresh transfer in that particular cycle. In this circumstance, we use our highly successful freezing methods to store all of the embryos created – we call this a freeze-all cycle. Westmead Fertility Centre is leading the way in offering freeze-all cycles as a chance to maximise your treatment outcomes. Our research demonstrates that sometimes it’s best to hold off on a fresh transfer and wait until your body has recovered from the effects of ovarian stimulation before attempting to implant an embryo. In this scenario, the embryo will be transferred during a subsequent natural frozen embryo transfer cycle – without the need for additional drugs. More than 95 percent of embryos frozen using this method will survive and cleave after thawing at a later date and a single blastocyst will be transferred. As a result, we are able to help you achieve success in the fewest number of stimulated cycles possible. For some of our patients this will mean just one stimulated cycle and a number of frozen embryo transfer cycles to achieve a pregnancy. If a freeze-all cycle is best for you, our team will recommend it to you while your cycle is progressing and ensure you are informed of your options along the way.

Ovulation tracking and ovulation induction

Ovulation is the process of an oocyte (or egg) being released from one of the ovaries. This usually happens once every month in women between the ages of 13 and 50 years, except when she is pregnant or taking the oral contraceptive pill. However, in some women, ovulation does not occur regularly. Ovulation may occur only once every six to eight weeks, once every few months, once or twice a year, or perhaps never, unless they are given treatment to stimulate the ovaries. It is also quite common for women who have regular periods to have one or two cycles a year in which they do not ovulate, but still have a period of bleeding around the expected time. Many couples want to know what they can do to improve their chance of conceiving. Your fertility specialist will discuss with you if ovulation tracking is right for you as a first step. It is a simple option that involves conducting a series of tests to help you understand your natural fertility and plan when to have sex to maximise the potential of getting pregnant. The term ‘ovulation induction’ (OI) is used to describe the process of stimulating the ovary to produce a mature oocyte (egg) and causing the release of the oocyte (ovulation). If sexual intercourse occurs at this time and the oocyte is fertilised by the sperm, a pregnancy may occur. The common medications used to induce ovulation can be either in the form of oral or injectable medications and may include:

  • Clomiphene Citrate (Clomid, Serophene) and Letrozole (Fenara). These are oral medications used for five days in the early stage of the menstrual cycle. The dose may vary, depending on your history or previous response (if applicable).
  • Metformin (Diabex, Diaformin). This is an oral medication which can help control insulin resistance or impaired glucose tolerance in women, a common finding in women with irregular cycles caused by polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS).
  • Gonadotrophic injections (Gonal F, Puregon, Menopur). These are given by subcutaneous injection into the lower abdomen. Either medication can be used on a daily basis or until a mature follicle or follicles are seen by ultrasound monitoring. Due to the increased risk of multiple pregnancy, this treatment option will require frequent monitoring by testing hormone levels and ultrasounds. Once the chance of a multiple pregnancy has been excluded, ovulation will be triggered by an injection of another gonadotrophin (Pregnyl, Ovidrel).

Treatment add-ons

Your fertility specialist may suggest optional treatments in addition to your routine treatment offered at Westmead Fertility Centre, with a view that they may improve your chances of having a baby. These are sometimes called ‘treatment add-ons’, ‘adjuvant therapies’ or ‘supplementary treatments’. For some of these ‘treatment add-ons’, there is not enough evidence to show that they are safe and/or effective at increasing your chances of having a baby. Our fertility specialists use the Human Fertilisation & Embryology Authority website to provide you with more information on what some of these add-ons are and to assist you deciding if they are right for you.

If you do decide to use a ‘treatment add-on’, your fertility specialist will ask you to complete an additional consent form and provide you with the specific instructions.

Click here to go to the HFEA treatment add-ons page

Oocyte (egg), sperm and embryo donation

There are various reasons why a couple or an individual may need to access donor oocytes (or eggs), sperm or embryos. Westmead Fertility Centre facilitates ‘known donation’ whereby a recipient (and their partner, if applicable) present with a donor known to them. Westmead Fertility Centre does not import oocytes, sperm or embryos for the purpose of donation nor locate a donor for a recipient or vice versa. Oocyte, sperm or embryo donation is a complex process with various social, emotional and medical implications. As an accredited ART facility, Westmead Fertility Centre complies with various State and Federal legislations and guidelines and prioritises the safety and well being of all parties involved in the donation process. The donation journey can therefore be a lengthy process with a requirement for a number of essential medical appointments and tests (for both the recipient/s and donor/s), counselling sessions (which partners, if applicable, are required to participate in) and genetic counselling and screening requirements. Both the donor and recipient must be willing and able to attend various appointments at Westmead Fertility Centre, understanding that the process may take several months to complete and that there is no guarantee of success. Since the introduction of the NSW Central Register in 2010, the birth of any child conceived using donor oocytes, sperm or embryos must be recorded on the ‘Central Register’, in addition to certain identifying information about the donor and the recipient. A donor-conceived child can access their donor’s identifying information from the Register once they reach 18 years of age. It’s important to be aware that the donor has no legal obligations to any child born as a result of the donation and the recipient (and her partner, if applicable) will be the legal parents of any child(ren) born. We encourage you to seek further legal advice regarding the laws surrounding oocyte, sperm and embryo donation and your particular scenario. At Westmead Fertility Centre, you will be assisted and supported along the donation journey by our dedicated Donor Coordinator. Your questions are welcomed at any time and we will endeavour to explain each step and ensure clarity and understanding throughout the process.  The donation journey commences with ‘the donor work-up’. Briefly, this commences with both the recipient and donor having a phone consultation with the Donor Coordinator to determine initial eligibility and to explain the donation process. Next, the donor will have an appointment with their Fertility Specialist for pre-approval to donate. Both the donor and recipient (and their partners, if applicable) will then be ready to commence the counselling sessions to discuss the implications of donation. Genetic screening and further counselling will follow, with a final medical consult scheduled at the conclusion of the work-up process to sign consents and discuss the treatment cycle. It’s important to note that, in Australia, donors receive no financial gain, consideration or similar benefit from donation. Any donor coming from overseas must travel on the appropriate visa and hold adequate medical insurance for the procedures to be performed in Australia.  Our team or Donor Coordinator can provide more detailed information.

Oocyte donation

Oocyte donation may be an option if:

  • A woman’s own ovaries do not produce oocytes, possibly due to premature menopause, following chemotherapy treatment for cancer, or other reasons.
  • A woman has a known genetic disorder, or is a carrier to a genetic disorder that may be passed to her children.
  • A woman has had her ovaries removed, or was born without ovaries.
  • A woman has had several unsuccessful IVF or ICSI cycles where the problem has been attributed to her oocytes.

At Westmead Fertility Centre we are able to offer treatment to patients who wish to use donor oocytes (eggs). However, there is some criteria you must meet before we can help you with this. The criteria for your egg donor are:

  • Your oocyte donor must be known to you and the donation must be altruistic in nature.
  • Your oocyte donor must be between 25 – 38 years of age.
  • Your Oocyte (egg) donor cannot be a close relative of the male receiving treatment and, ideally, they have completed their own family.
  • Your oocyte donor should not have donated at another fertility centre.
  • Your oocyte donor must be prepared and managed (‘worked-up’) using our procedures. That is, we cannot import donated samples from another fertility centre.

If you already have a known oocyte donor and all these criteria are met, more detailed information on using donor oocytes at Westmead Fertility Centre can be found here.

If you have not found someone who is willing to donate oocytes to you, unfortunately, we are unable to help you at this time. Please revisit this page once you have a known oocyte donor who meets the above criteria.

Sperm donation

Donor sperm may be an option if:

  • A male has no sperm or a very poor semen analysis (for example, a low sperm count, poor ability to move and abnormally shaped sperm).
  • A male has a known genetic disorder or is a carrier to a genetic disorder that may be passed to her children.
  • For same-sex relationships.

At Westmead Fertility Centre we are able to offer treatment to patients who wish to use donor sperm. However, there is some criteria you must meet before we can help you with this. The criteria for your sperm donor are:

  • Your sperm donor must be known to you and the donation must be altruistic in nature.
  • Your sperm donor must be between 21 – 60 years of age.
  • Your sperm donor must not be a close relative of the female receiving treatment.
  • Your sperm donor should not have donated at another fertility centre.
  • Your sperm donor must be prepared and managed (‘worked-up’) using our procedures. That is, we cannot import donated samples from another fertility centre.

If you already have a known sperm donor and all these criteria are met, more detailed information on using donor sperm at Westmead Fertility Centre can be found here.

If you have not found someone who is willing to donate sperm to you, unfortunately, we are unable to help you at this time. Please revisit this page once you have a known sperm donor who meets the above criteria.

Embryo donation

Embryo donation may be an option if a couple or individual requires both oocyte and sperm donation. Some Westmead Fertility Centre patients may have completed their family and have embryos remaining in storage. Depending on the number and quality of embryos remaining and the age of the couple (the female of the donating couple must have been aged 38 years or younger and the male 60 years or younger at the time the embryos were created), these couples may choose to donate their remaining embryos to a recipient known to them. Due to the complex nature of embryo donation, a donation cannot occur until at least three months following the donors’ initial individual counselling session. It’s important to note that embryo donors can alter or withdraw their consent up until the recipient’s embryo transfer procedure.

Please follow this link to access more detailed information on using donor embryos at Westmead Fertility Centre here.

Fertility preservation options

Fertility preservation for female cancer patients Some forms of medical treatment, particularly chemotherapy and radiotherapy, can have an adverse effect on fertility in women. This generally occurs as a result of a toxic effect on the ovary leading to permanent death of the oocytes (eggs) in the ovary. When girls are born, they have all the eggs they will ever have, which are released over time throughout the rest of their life. Unlike men who continually make sperm throughout their lifetime, women cannot make any new eggs. Therefore, any eggs which are lost or damaged through medical treatment can never be replaced. Oocyte and embryo storage At present, there is unfortunately no proven way to protect the ovaries against the effects of cancer treatment. The only option that is readily available, and which offers a reasonable chance of future pregnancy, is for the woman to undertake in vitro fertilisation (IVF) before she undergoes the medical treatment that could damage her ovaries, followed by storage of the resulting oocytes or fertilised embryos. The IVF procedure takes approximately two weeks to complete, so the patient needs to be able to safely delay chemotherapy or radiotherapy treatment over this time. For some forms of cancer treatment, delay or ovarian stimulation with hormones is not advisable. Our team of fertility specialists are experts in this area and will work with the other members of your medical team to advise you of the options available to you. Ovarian tissue storage By having a small piece of your ovary collected now and stored deep-frozen, you may be able to use it at a later date in one of two ways:

  1. Complete oocyte maturation in the laboratory. This is being researched around the world, but is not available clinically at the present time.
  2. Surgical reimplantation of the removed piece. It is possible to surgically replace the small piece of ovary once the chemotherapy or radiotherapy treatment has been completed. This has now been used successfully in a small number of women, resulting in the birth of healthy babies.

Westmead Fertility Centre is pleased to be able to offer bulk billed payment for some fertility preservation scenarios in order to provide additional support to our patients at this difficult time. Fertility preservation options for females   Fertility preservation for male cancer patients It is possible that the chemotherapy drugs or radiotherapy that you are due to receive may have an adverse effect on your sperm. This temporary, or sometimes permanent, effect may make it more difficult for you to father children. The likelihood of damage to your sperm production depends on the exact nature and dose of your treatment, but it is often not possible to predict the results. Whatever the treatment, you will still produce semen (fluid) when you ejaculate but there may be no sperm present in this fluid. Semen storage Freezing semen (semen cryostorage) may be an option for you. The aim of storing frozen semen before chemotherapy or radiotherapy, is to offer a potential backup in case the treatment does affect your sperm production. However, if your sperm function recovers after your treatment, you may not need to use these stored samples. The first step is to discuss your situation with your fertility specialist and obtain a request for fertility preservation at Westmead Fertility Centre. You will need to attend a laboratory appointment for our team to carry out an assessment of the sperm in the sample you provide and freeze the sample for storage until your fertility potential is reassessed. If you need to rely on stored semen to try to achieve a pregnancy, it will be thawed and used for either intrauterine insemination or in vitro fertilisation. Semen remains viable for many year when frozen and hundreds of thousands of children have been conceived worldwide using stored semen. Fertility preservation options for males

Success Rates

Westmead Fertility Centre has always been transparent about our success rates, which is why we were pleased when was launched in 2021.  This website provides clear, trusted information including what’s involved in fertility treatment and assistance to find a clinic. ‘Success Estimator’ assists you to evaluate your chance of having a baby using IVF based on data from Australian fertility clinics (which is updated with the latest data each year).  You will see that not all couples have an equal chance of achieving a pregnancy with the most important factors influencing success rates:

When comparing Westmead Fertility Centre to other clinics you will see that we perform very strongly against the National Averages – but we offer you access to our high-quality treatment at an affordable price, making Westmead Fertility Centre your choice for value.

Check out Westmead Fertility Centre’s Success Rates

Rather than visiting a fertility clinic’s own website, where data can be published in an incomplete way to paint them in the most favourable light, we encourage you to review the data directly at  The site provides information on how to interpret the results you see for each clinic.

And we won’t stop here – at Westmead Fertility Centre we are committed to attempting to continuously improve treatment outcomes through the ongoing investment in our laboratory and clinical approaches. For example, we have been leading the field in Australia by using freeze-all cycles

Read more about:

Steps in your journey

The first step in your fertility journey is to consider how long you’ve been trying to get pregnant. The term ‘infertility’ is generally used if:

  • a couple has not conceived after 12 months of regular unprotected intercourse if the women is under 35 years of age, or
  • a couple has not conceived after six months of regular unprotected intercourse if the women is over 35 years of age.

A more accurate term for most couples having difficulty conceiving is ‘sub-fertility’, which means the ability to become pregnant is diminished. It does not mean that you are unable to have children, but that you may require treatment or assistance to achieve a pregnancy. For most people, having trouble falling pregnant comes as a surprise, but in reality, up to one in six couples in Australia has difficulty conceiving. If the female partner is under 35 years of age and you have been having unprotected intercourse for less than 12 months, there is no need to be concerned about not falling pregnant. Contrary to popular belief, it is not ‘easy’ to become pregnant. However, there are some pre-existing or past medical conditions that may be playing a role. Use our checklist below to know when to seek help sooner. If you tick any of the boxes below and have not fallen pregnant within six months, regardless of your age, it is recommended that you make an appointment with one of our fertility specialists:

  • irregular or absent menstrual periods
  • have used an intrauterine device (or IUD) in the past for birth control
  • difficulties with sexual intercourse
  • a history of pelvic infection
  • chronic pelvic pain
  • breast discharge
  • history of sexually transmitted infection
  • excessive acne or facial hair
  • experienced two or more miscarriages
  • prostate infections in the male partner
  • sterilisation reversal in either partner.

In summary, it is time to schedule an appointment with one of our fertility specialists if:

  • you are a female under 35 year of age and have been having unprotected intercourse for more than 12 months, or
  • you are a female under 35 yeas of age and you or your partner tick any of the boxes on the above list and have been having unprotected intercourse for more than six months, or
  • you are a female over the age of 35 and you have been having unprotected intercourse for more than six months.

Next steps:

  • Ask your general practitioner (GP) or specialist to provide you with a referral to a Westmead Fertility Centre fertility specialist. See ‘Meet our experts’ tab > ‘Fertility specialist team’ tab for a complete list of our fertility specialist and their bios. This will ensure you are able to claim benefits from Medicare, which will cover a significant amount of the treatment costs. It is important that both partners’ names are included in the referral letter as further testing and treatment will usually involve both partners (if you are a couple). Download a printable referral letter to take to your GP or specialist.

  • If you are a couple, you will both need to attend the initial consultation with our fertility specialist, which usually takes around one hour. You will need to bring your referral and any other prior test results. Your fertility specialist will discuss your medical history, conduct a physical examination and generally order further tests and investigations. The most appropriate treatment for your situation may be discussed and explained or this may occur at a later visit after test results have been received and reviewed.

Start your fertility journey with Westmead Fertility Centre